Programs/Subprograms of Urban Agriculture in Cuba

The urban agriculture has 26 subprograms developed through the whole country to deal with specific topics such as, the  production of vegetables, medicinal plants, condiments, grains, fruits and  the animal breeding  (hens, rabbits, lambs, goats, pigs and bees).

  1. Soil control and conservation.
  2. Organic matter.
  3. Seeds.
  4. Water and drainage.
  5. Vegetables and fresh condiments.
  6. Medicinal plants and dry condiments.
  7. Ornamental plants and flowers.
  8. Fruits.
  9. Protected cultivations.
  10. Popular rice.
  11. Forest, coffee and cocoa.
  12. Popular banana.
  13. Roots and tropical tubers.
  1. Oleaginous.
  2. Beans.
  3. Food for animals.
  4. Beekeeping.
  5. Poultry.
  6. Rabbit breeding.
  7. Lambs and goats.
  8. Pig Farming.
  9. Bovine.
  10. Aquaculture.
  11. Commercialization.
  12. Small agroindustry.
  13. Science, technology, qualification and environment.

Vegetables and fresh condiments

This was the first activity carried out by the urban agriculture; therefore, the most developed one. Among its main tasks are the production of more than 1,380,000 ton of fresh vegetables with superior yields to 20 kg/m2/year in organopónicos, 10 kg/m2/year in intensive orchards and 10 kg/m2/year in landplots and yards. Based on the foreseen yields this subprogram will give a substantial contribution to the national horticultural production providing more than 300g of vegetables per capita every day. Nowadays important levels of production are found in Cienfuegos, Ciego of Ávila, Sancti Spíritus and Havana.

This subprogram has been the lab where the principles, objectives and perspectives of the urban agriculture development in Cuba have been experienced, proven and consolidated.

Medicinal plants and dry condiments

The main part of the medicinal plants productions is commercialize with dependences of the Public Health Ministry (MINSAP for their initials in Spanish), to be processed as green medicine, and expended it to the population through the pharmacies network. The rest is sold green or dry off for the domestic consumption.

Dry condiments are commonly used in the Cuban cuisine, drying and prosecution of some species has been required due its overproduction level. The condiments consumption in Cuba has been reached 120g year per capita.

Fruits

Despite of being recently included as an urban agriculture subprogram, the fruit tree’s sown with different purposes has been traditional in urban areas. The practice has demonstrated the high productive potential that characterizes this program today, mainly concern to mango, avocado pear and citric. The current development foresees a wide program of vivarium and implants to accelerate the production of these and other fruits.

Poultry

This is the more developed animal production program, essentially in the breeding of chickens and ducks.

The breeding of chickens is develop by a plan that assign to the producer 10 females and 1 male of the called semi-rustic hens, which are obtained by the cross of Creole birds with races of higher productive potential as the Rhode Island Red, from this crossing the obtained hens are characterized by their resistance to the environment setbacks, wildness and a higher yields of bird meat and eggs. In mature stage this race of hen with improved feeding conditions (109 g/bird/day) stays putting eggs the whole year, reaching a an averages of 200 eggs per year.

The ducks are the domestic bird of quicker growth in just 7-8 weeks of age it can reach among 2.8 and 3.2 kg of weight, with a near conversion to 3kg of weight for 1kg animal food. This bird has low demanding feeding conditions and is more resistant to some common bird’s infectious illnesses.

Besides the mentioned species, breeding goose, turkeys and Guineans take place at small scale.

Pig Farming

The development of this program has its own special singularities, having in mind the sanitary measures that require the pig’s breeding in urban areas and the services as vaccination and measured prophylaxes guided by veterinary specialist. For such reasons this program is mostly executed in suburban areas.

The producer can establish an advantageous agreement with the Group of Pig Farming Production and the Territorial Pig Farming Technical Service; through this the producer acquires animals of 12-20 kg of weight to moderate price and part of the food necessary to feed the animals. After 4-5 months, when the pig acquires 90 kg or more, the State buys it to the producer at the official price and the extra to a higher price.